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By Ungku Abdul Aziz, Ungku A. Aziz

ISBN-10: 1557751471

ISBN-13: 9781557751478

Papers provided at a seminar held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 28-July 1, 1989

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Download e-book for kindle: Strategies for structural adjustment : the experience of by Ungku Abdul Aziz, Ungku A. Aziz

Papers provided at a seminar held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 28-July 1, 1989

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Sample text

For both countries, the deficit has averaged 20 percent or more of merchandise exports. Forecasts suggest that this pattern will persist as imports, particularly of machinery and capital goods, continue to grow. This imbalance puts pressure on the countries' exchange rates and sources of foreign currency, but the problem can be offset by inflows from direct investment, foreign aid, and willing lenders. The strong export growth figures and the steady expansion of manufactured exports indicate economies undergoing important adjustments and realigning themselves on export-oriented development strategies.

Therefore, this push into exports cannot possibly explain Malaysia and Singapore's problems in the mid-1980s nor their subsequent recovery after 1987. Among the ASEAN countries, the Philippines was the first to industrialize (manufacturing as a share of GDP reached 20 percent in the 1960s, well ahead of all its neighbors). But then that process came to a standstill in the late 1970s and in the 1980s. So, once again, the drive into manufacturing did not come only in the 1980s and cannot explain either the Philippines' economic difficulties of the 1980s or its present indication at resurrection.

Not for Redistribution Table 3. S. 75 21 6 1988 to 1990 (In percent) Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (IFS). Note: Appreciation or depreciation from 1980 to 1988 was calculated by dividing the 1988 exchange rate by the 1980 rate and then subtracting 1 from the quotient. The same method was used for 1988 to 1990. Forecast data for 1989 and 1990 were taken from Asian Economic Commentary (Merrill Lynch Capital Markets), March 1989. na = nonapplicable. ©International Monetary Fund.

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Strategies for structural adjustment : the experience of Southeast Asia by Ungku Abdul Aziz, Ungku A. Aziz


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