By Thomas Toftegaard Nielsen
As a result explosive international development within the variety of cellular subscribers, in addition to the expansion estimated within the cellular info section, the necessity for superior spectrum potency at the radio interface turns into an increasing number of vital. Frequency hopping (FH) is a good strategy for bettering the spectrum potency. one of many benefits of FH is that it may be mixed with different spectral potency bettering positive factors like strength regulate, handover and reuse partitioning. functionality improvements in a Frequency Hopping GSM community covers FH and a few of the extra gains intimately. It starts off with an in-depth description of the fundamental suggestion of FH on hyperlink point in addition to on approach point. various equipment were used for research, equivalent to hyperlink point simulations, community point simulations and vintage tele-traffic thought. distinct good points of functionality improvements in a Frequency Hopping GSM community: Combines the useful reports of operator and seller with extra theoretical study tools. An in-depth remedy of triumphing difficulties in GSM networks; Presentation of a brand new procedure, computer-aided community layout (CAND), which has been built to examine the complicated community buildings of a GSM community. CAND offers the prospect for extra lifelike functionality reviews than traditional equipment; presents GSM-specific research of performance advancements in continual regulate, discontinuous transmission, and several other handover algorithms; rationalization of the standard and means earnings of positive aspects just like the blend of FH and reuse partitioning, referred to as clever frequency hopping; A frequency making plans procedure for FH GSM networks is gifted. this system exploits the advantages from FH at once within the allocation method, expanding the final frequency plan.
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The reported parameter, must be an average (over a period of 480 ms) of the received signal level measurement samples in dBm. Furthermore the measured levels must be mapped into a RXLEV value between 0 and 63 before they are reported. The 64 different possible signal levels are shown in Table 1. 7 In practice the frequency reuse schemes are almost never regular or homogeneous. A Brief Introduction™ to the GSM System 27 As well as the received signal strength, the radio link parameter, describing the quality or BER, is specified in the GSM specifications.
The network structure of a typical Manhattan grid is shown in Figure 15 (c), where the cluster is split according to buildings and streets. Each cell has been assigned a number of radio channels. Since there is a limited number of available frequencies, frequencies are reused with a certain reuse distance equal to the physical distance between two cells using the same frequency . For the radio network planner an important network parameter is therefore the minimum allowed reuse distance. 26 Performance Enhancements in a Frequency Hopping GSM Network Sometimes the term reuse factor is used.
It should be noted that the C/I values in the tables are linear averaged C/I values and that the frequencies, which referred to as being not interfered have a C/I of 20 dB. 3 dB. 5 dB. Link Modelling and Link Performance 43 From the results it can be seen, that having some frequencies completely or nearly interference free, quite a large gain can be achieved. When sequential hopping with 3 or 4 frequencies is used and only one frequency is interfered, it is possible to have one very strong interferer on one of the frequencies, while the FER is still satisfactorily good.
Performance Enhancements in a Frequency Hopping GSM Network by Thomas Toftegaard Nielsen