Get Impacts on U.S. Energy Expenditures and Greenhouse-Gas PDF

By Michael Toman, James Griffin, Robert J. Lempert

ISBN-10: 0833044974

ISBN-13: 9780833044976

How may perhaps generating 25 percentage of U.S. electrical energy and motor-vehicle transportation fuels from renewables through the yr 2025 have an effect on U.S. purchaser strength bills and CO2 emissions? This document reveals that achieving 25 percentage renewables with restricted impression on expenses calls for major growth in renewable-energy applied sciences and biomass construction. with no giant innovation in those parts, expenses may perhaps bring up significantly.

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Impacts on U.S. Energy Expenditures and Greenhouse-Gas by Michael Toman, James Griffin, Robert J. Lempert PDF

How may well generating 25 percentage of U. S. electrical energy and motor-vehicle transportation fuels from renewables by means of the yr 2025 impact U. S. buyer strength charges and CO2 emissions? This document unearths that attaining 25 percentage renewables with restricted effect on bills calls for major growth in renewable-energy applied sciences and biomass creation.

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In the high–expenditure change scenarios, consumers are less able to respond to higher prices. As noted, the net effect on expenditures of the 25 percent renewables requirements reflects the higher cost of substituting renewable sources for fossil-fuel sources; the reductions in the 7 Shoulder-load demand represents the intermediate level of demand between peak and base loads. S.

The only moderating factors on prices are the induced reduction in total fuel demand and the induced reduction in the world price of crude oil. 5 Range of Prices for Gasoline and Gasoline-Equivalent Biofuels 100 90 Subsidy Revenue neutral Percentage of Scenarios 80 Fossil-fuel tax 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 2. 75 3. 00 3. 25 3. 50 3. 75 4. 00 4. 25 4. 50 4. 75 5. 00 5. 25 5. 50 5. 75 6. 00 6. 25 6. 50 6. 75 7. 00 50 25 2. 2. 2. S. 00 per gallon, almost three times the EIA reference projection, if there is only limited progress in expanding supplies of low-cost biofuels.

In our analysis, most of the biofuels produced to meet the 25 percent requirement come from technologies that are in a precommercial state. Because the 25 percent requirement would mean widespread deployment of these technologies, we allow for a large range in their future costs. 5 show a wide range of possible outcomes from the renewable-energy requirement. The current knowledge base is not sufficient to assess probabilistically the likelihoods of these outcomes. The results do indicate that the 25 percent policy requirements can be met with limited impacts on consumer energy expenditures, if there is substantial concurrent progress in reducing the costs of biofuel and bioelectricity production; growing a large-scale, low-cost biomass supply; and producing wind power in more remote or lower-quality sites.

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Impacts on U.S. Energy Expenditures and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of Increasing Renewable-Energy Use by Michael Toman, James Griffin, Robert J. Lempert


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