By Erich Krell
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Additional info for Handbook of Laboratory Distillation, With an Introduction to Pilot Plant Distillation (Techniques & Instrumentation in Analytical Chemistry)
By Weia and Schmidt  and Schmidt [llp]. They differ from those suggested by other authors in that they allow for the constructional material of the packing and the surface ronghness. The critical surface tension is not sufficient for an exact calculation of the degree of wetting. Kwasniak [llaJ studied condensation and vaporization effects in packed columns on the assumption that there is a temperature difference between vapour and liquid in each cross-section of the colunin. Thus the iinwetted portions of the packing surfaces can be regarded as heat exchange surfaces.
To Volumeyo: Volumeo/ 'O . WJel Wlkl (14) + WZ/& M,de, 100 (16) - J f P l / @ l Jfzxzlez + 4 As these calculations are often time-consuming, various nomograms have been developed for carrying out the conversions rapidly. In converting from molecular or weight percentages to percentages by volume it should be remembered that the formulae m d i d only if no change in volume (contraction) occurs on mixing the components. A nomogram suitable for many purposes has been designed by Orlicek, Poll and Walenda  (Fig.
Fig. 2 5 ) . Suitable model liquids for a study of the inaterial exchange in countercurrent coluinns are freons and inorganic chlorides with a dilute iodine solution [3a]. g. szBr in a column for the distillation of butadiene [3b]. The basic feature of a column with stationary or rotating elements is that the elenients are regularly arranged. Sulzer’s packing is a wire gauze insert for falling film distillation which gives rise to a prolonged zigzag path for exchange while in the spray column (Spraypak) the liquid phase is dispersed due to the kinetic energy of the vapour, the latter moving through the packing as a closed stream.
Handbook of Laboratory Distillation, With an Introduction to Pilot Plant Distillation (Techniques & Instrumentation in Analytical Chemistry) by Erich Krell