By Lawrie Lloyd
Much has been written approximately basic features of catalysis, but regardless of their common functions info pertaining to advertisement catalysts and data approximately real working stipulations usually are not available. This e-book offers updated studies and references to steer these engaged on commercial catalysts. it is going to be a useful consultant for catalysis researchers in and academia, and for students.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Industrial Catalysts
Contact acid > 96%. 6 A description of the Kachkaroff process shows how the old plants operated. The burner, which produced reaction gas, was followed by four large cylindrical reaction vessels in which sulfur dioxide reacted with oxygen, catalyzed by the circulation of nitrous vitriol and gaseous nitrogen oxides. Nitrous vitriol was a solution of 10–15 wt% nitrogen oxides in sulfuric acid. Nitrogen oxide losses were made up as required by a small ammonia oxidation unit. More than 80% of the sulfur dioxide was oxidized in the first reaction vessel.
Ed. by M. V. , Lond don, England, 1989, by kind permission of o M. Twigg. The First Catalysts 33 34 Chapter 2 The performance of platinum catalysts depended strongly on the form of the support, which influenced crystallite size. Operating life depended on the poisons present in the sulfur dioxide and was originally about two years. With process improvements to remove poisons, the catalyst life eventually increased to about 10 years. Most reactors contained tubes that were cooled by exchange with cold inlet gas.
Following the introduction of vanadium pentoxide by De Haen it was discovered empirically by Slama and Wolf that alkalis improved catalyst activity and these have been used in all the catalysts produced ever since. They were specified as important for stability by both BASF and the General Chemical Company. 6. Contact Process Catalysts Containing Vanadium Pentoxide. Producer 1920: Slama-Wolf18 Comment Used by BASF from 1920 and in the United States by General Chemical Co. from 1927. Made by mixing ammonium metavanadate and potash with kieselguhr (50:56:316).
Handbook of Industrial Catalysts by Lawrie Lloyd