By Uri Zoller
The second one installment of the multivolume guide of Detergents offers with the capability environmental impression of detergents due to their construction, formula, utilization, intake, and disposal. This quantity kinds a entire treatise at the multidimensional concerns concerned and emphasizes the alignment of medical wisdom with the appropriate modern information and methodologies in toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental possibility overview. With contributions from over 50 specialists all over the world, this quantity discusses strategies concerning surfactant and detergent remedies and explores worldwide matters centering on fresh legislative and regulatory advancements.
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Additional info for Handbook of Detergents, Part B
7% minimum phosphorous content has been found essential for adequate performance . 3. The Far East, Australia, and Africa Japan enacted total bans on detergent phosphate by prefecture regulations. Most products were reformulated. After two years, 90% of all detergents manufactured and marketed were free of phosphates, being based mostly on zeolites [1,50]. South Korea manufactures basically only phosphate-free detergents . Australia and China are still scenes of debates on the issue [1,51].
Effect of Surfactant Regulation on Sewage and Surface Water Load (1980–2000) The implementation of the surfactant regulation solved most of the signiﬁcant ecological problems in Europe, the United States, and Japan with respect to residual concentration of surfactants in sewage eﬄuents and surface waters. The order of magnitude of the contribution of laundry detergents and other cleansing agents to the sewage surfactant load in Germany in 1980 has been documented comprehensively [1,18,19]. In these publications, the average theoretical concentrations (mg/L) of the total detergents and diﬀerent surfactant categories were calculated.
Nonylphenol (NP) and NPEO were found to be biodegradable in natural waters. Biodegradation of labeled nonylphenol in seawater was slow initially but increased Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker 24 Friedman rapidly . A comprehensive review on biodegradability, aquatic toxicity, and environmental fate is available . The APE (Alkylphenol and Ethoxylates Panel) of the Chemical Manufacturers Association has sponsored an extensive program on the toxicity of NP to aquatic life, including acute and chronic exposures .
Handbook of Detergents, Part B by Uri Zoller