By Nicholas J. Talley, G. Richard Locke, Paul Moayyedi, Joseph J. West, Alexander C. Ford, Yuri A. Saito
The purely ebook to mix epidemiological research of gastrointestinal illnesses with an exam of the methodologies of scientific learn, GI Epidemiology, second Edition, unites international specialists to spot why and the way GI ailments happen, to whom, and what may be performed to avoid them. With new editors, new individuals, and a brand new, extra straight forward method of epidemiology, this version offers important details in an available framework.
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Additional info for GI epidemiology : diseases and clinical methodology
The aim when selecting the study population is for cases to be either all or a random sample of available cases, and for controls to represent a random sample of all those who do not have the disease, but would be cases if they did. Information bias is always important to consider in a case-control study. This may arise if information on exposures is reported or ascertained in a systematically different way between cases and controls. When information on exposures is collected after cases have been identified (which is typical of this design), this takes the form of recall bias because participants must recall past exposures.
Am J Public Health Nation’s Health 1957;47(4 Pt 2):4–24. 4 Doll R, Hill AB. The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits: a preliminary report. Original publication: BMJ 1954;1(4877):1451–5; reprinted BMJ 2004;328(7455):1529–33. 5 Belanger CF, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE. The Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Nurs 1978;78(6):1039–40. 6 EPIC – European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [Internet]. fr/ (accessed June 10, 2011). 7 Rothman K. (2002) Epidemiology: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, New York.
R Objective measures should be used where possible Women’s self-reported aspirin and NSAID use was not an objective measure of exposure; however, this was likely the only practical way to measure this exposure over a long study follow-up period for a large number of participants. Accurate measures of drug exposure are notoriously difficult to obtain and purchase or prescription data are not often a better option. 3 What is the outcome and how was it ascertained? The outcome was a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer during the study follow-up period.
GI epidemiology : diseases and clinical methodology by Nicholas J. Talley, G. Richard Locke, Paul Moayyedi, Joseph J. West, Alexander C. Ford, Yuri A. Saito