By Neil Woodford, Alan P. Johnson
Watching into crystal balls is past the services of such a lot scientists. but, as we glance additional into the twenty first century, one doesn't need to be Nostradamus to foretell that the present genomics and proteomics "revolution" can have a huge impression on clinical bacteriology. This impression is already being re- ized in lots of educational departments, and even though encroachment on regimen diagnostic bacteriology, rather within the sanatorium surroundings, is probably going to take place at a slower velocity, it is still still inevitable. consequently, it will be significant that nobody operating in bacteriology may still locate themselves distanced from those basic advancements. The involvement of all medical bacteriologists is vital if the numerous achievements of genome sequencing and research are to be became tangible advances, with ensuing merits for sufferer care and m- agement. it really is our desire that Genomics, Proteomics, and scientific Bacteriology: tools and stories will play a component in bringing any such improvement to fruition. The advances in genomics and proteomics have already given us common possibilities to think again our wisdom and figuring out of confirmed b- terial adversaries, and feature supplied us with the capability to spot new foes. the hot wisdom received is allowing us to re-examine, for instance, our c- cepts of bacterial pathogenicity, phylogeny and novel pursuits for antibacterial chemotherapy. those subject matters, and others, are thought of in Genomics, Proteomics, and scientific Bacteriology: equipment and stories.
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Extra info for Genomics, Proteomics and Clinical Bacteriology
Both strains fall into clonetype II-A. The results showed that S. aureus is remarkably flex- Comparative Genomics 53 ible in its ability to share genetic information with other organisms in the environment, including even eukaryotes. The number of transmissible elements present in the two genomes is large, and, despite close phenotypic similarity between the two organisms, there are strain-specific insertions, including relatively large amounts of extra DNA, in Mu50. Only about 50% of the genome could be traced back to a common ancestor Bacillus/Staphylococcus, which is less than might be predicted given the phylogenetic relatedness between the two groups as determined by rDNA sequencing.
9) 21 27 36 16 4 10 50 10 13 13 10 45 37 8 5 18 52 6 2 18 sequence similarity, which can be attributed to a common evolutionary ancestor. nlm. gov/BLAST/) (see Chapter 2). Gene annotation is based on finding significant alignment of predicted ORFs to sequences of known function (10). Gene products are classified on the basis of function, biological role, and cellular location. However, many of the genes in new genomes show no significant homology to GenBank entries. Matches of lesser significance provide only a tentative prediction and should be used as a working hypothesis of gene function (11).
The V. cholerae genome sequence strain, El Tor O1 N16961, was responsible for the seventh cholera pandemic, beginning in 1961 (30). Prior to this time, however, El Tor O1 strains caused epidemic disease, and there are examples of El Tor O1 strains that do not cause disease at all. In order to determine some of the genes responsible for the pandemic nature of N16961, comparative microarrays were used to identify genes not present in epidemic El Tor O1 strains and/or environmental strains, but present in a N16961 microarray representing 3632 ORFs (29).
Genomics, Proteomics and Clinical Bacteriology by Neil Woodford, Alan P. Johnson