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By Vishram Singh

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10). All these modifications reduce oxygen loss across the gills. Oxygen and CO2 diffuse at similar rates; thus a reduction in gill area will also affect CO2 excretion. Larger CO2 gradients are required to maintain CO2 excretion, and generally CO2 levels are elevated in airbreathing fish, reflecting the reduced diffusing capacity of the gills. Arterial PC02 in trout is about 2 mmHg, in jeju 10-12 mmHg, in pirarucu 28 mmHg (Randall et al. 1978a,b). 12. (c) A plastic cast of the capillary circulation to the bladder air sacs, (d) Section through a single small air sac.

For instance, high CO2 levels are common in many air-breathing fish because of the reduced diffusing capacity of the gills or skin. Arapaima has smaller gills per unit weight than Hoplerythrinus and has a higher arterial blood CO2 content andP C02 . 24. Schematic representation of the pathways of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide excretion in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas). The possible state of the CO2-bicarbonate system within the plasma is indicated: CO2 -ยป HCO3" indicates CO2 is being hydrated to HCO;^ at the uncatalyzed rate; CO2 ^ HCO^ infers the CO2-bicarbonate system is in equlibrium (from Randall et al.

Amiloride, which inhibits sodium uptake, blocks hydrogen ion excretion in conjunction with Na + uptake at the gill in trout (Kirschner et al. 1973). The same is also true for the amphibian urinary bladder. That dehydrated toads can regulate pH, if only poorly compared to hydrated toads, probably represents the ability of their large urinary bladders to remove and store hydrogen ions. Up to one-fifth of their body weight may be as water in the bladder. Amphibian kidney tubules can also excrete acid into the urine, and the combined tubular and bladder acid-secreting mechanism allows Bufo marinus to produce urine with a pH of less than 6 during dehydration (Boutilier et al.

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General anatomy by Vishram Singh


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