By Sharif Gemie
Relocating clear of a Paris-centric view of the rustic, this publication examines advancements which spread out throughout France, together with reviews of rural socialism in Mediterranean France and peasant monarchism within the West.
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Additional resources for French Revolutions, 1815-1914
1. language: if it could be shown that all thirty million people spoke approximately the same language, then it could be argued that this facet of their daily lives made them different from the other peoples of Europe. However, French was not always the dominant language. Eugen Weber has estimated that in 1863 French (and regional forms of the French language) was the first language of at most about four-fifths of the population. 12 At almost every point of the compass, French was challenged: in the north-east by Flemish, in the east by German and Swiss dialects, in the south-east by Italian dialects, in the south by Catalan, in the south-west by Basque, and in the west by Breton.
Their two conceptions of the Charter a contract binding the monarch, or a gift granted by the monarch were significantly different, and became important in 182730. The Charter created a tiny electorate. In a country of some thirty million people, only 110000 men were allowed to vote in 1817 a figure which shrank to less than eighty thousand in 1829, despite an increase in the population. The average department had somewhat more than a thousand voters in 1817, somewhat less by 1829. Voting was not only limited to the wealthy few, but was further restricted to those whose wealth came from land ownership.
Why was French society so frequently troubled by revolutionary conflict? I will not give a full answer to this question here, but in the last pages of this chapter I want to signal some unusual aspects of French politics. Our starting point is the legacy of the French Revolution. During the years from 1789 to 1815 at least three different models of rule were established: 1. monarchy 2. republic 3. empire France, prior to 1789, had been a monarchy: during the first three years of the Revolution, Louis XVI remained head of the French state, and this period of his rule set a pattern of constitutional monarchy, involving representative (not democratic) political structures, which remained the model for the monarchical rule following the Restorations of 1814 and 1815.
French Revolutions, 1815-1914 by Sharif Gemie