By Zeki Berk
The final thirty years have obvious the institution of meals Engineering either as a tutorial self-discipline and as a career. Combining medical intensity with useful usefulness, this booklet serves as a device for graduate scholars in addition to training nutrition engineers, technologists and researchers searching for the newest info on transformation and protection tactics in addition to strategy keep an eye on and plant hygiene issues. *Strong emphasis at the dating among engineering and product quality/safety *Links idea and perform *Considers issues in gentle of things comparable to fee and environmental matters
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Additional info for Food Process Engineering and Technology
Eds). Avi Publishing Co. Inc, Westport. 1 Introduction The majority of industrial food processes involve ﬂuid movement. Liquid foods such as milk and juices have to be pumped through processing equipment or from one container to another. In a blast freezer, a rapid stream of cold air is blown over the food. In a wheat mill, the grain, the milled intermediates and the ﬁnal products are most often conveyed in a stream of air (pneumatic conveying). Essential process service media (utilities) such as water, steam and various gases have to be distributed about the plant in properly designed pipelines.
Equations for ﬁtting sorption isotherms of foods. J Food Technol 13, 159–174. Choi, Y. R. (1986). Effect of temperature and composition on the thermal properties of foods. In Food Engineering and Process Applications, Vol. 1, Transport Phenomena (Le Maguer, L. , eds). Elsevier, New York. M. (1990). Principles of Food Chemistry, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Dickinson, E. ) (1987). Food Emulsions and Foams. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge. O. A. (2007). Food Physics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
3), varying from 0 at the wall (r ϭ R) to a maximum at the center axis of the pipe (r ϭ 0). The maximum velocity is: vmax ϭ ● ΔP 2 R 4L μ The shear stress proﬁle is linear (Fig. 3), varying from 0 at the center axis to a maximum at the wall. 11) The volumetric ﬂow rate Q, m3. sϪ1, is calculated from the velocity proﬁle by integration: R Qϭ ∫ 0 π R 4 ΔP ΔP 2 (R Ϫ r 2 )2π r dr ϭ 4L μ 8Lμ This is known as the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. 2 In ‘capillary viscosimetry’, the ﬂuid is forced to ﬂow through a capillary of known diameter and length, under the action of a known applied pressure.
Food Process Engineering and Technology by Zeki Berk