By Béatrice Craig
This quantity explores the function of ladies in company in nineteenth-century Northern French fabric facilities. Lille and the encompassing cities have been then ruled by means of gigantic and small relatives companies, and plenty of have been run through ladies. these girls didn't withdraw into the parlour because the century improved and the ‘separate ideology’ unfold. Neither did they develop into mere determine heads - so much have been company folks of their personal rights. but, they've got left nearly no strains within the collective reminiscence, and historians imagine they ceased to exist. This ebook for this reason seeks to respond to 3 interrelated questions: How universal have been these ladies, and what sort of company did they run? What elements facilitated or impeded their actions? and eventually, why have they been forgotten, and why has their representations in local and educational heritage been so at extraordinary with fact? in some way, this learn additionally sheds gentle at the strategy of industrialization during this quarter, and on industrialists’ strategies.
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Extra info for Female Enterprise Behind the Discursive Veil in Nineteenth-Century Northern France
The castellany of Lille had long shared several characteristics with other parts of Flanders: a precocious urbanization made possible by the very high productivity of the region’s agriculture, and the production for export of high-end woolen cloth using English wool. When the demand for the “Old Draperies” collapsed in the fifteenth century, Lille switched to the “New Draperies”, lightweight material using Spanish wool combed and spun in the surrounding countryside. The Lille weavers were organized in two guilds by 1500: one specializing in whole-wool material (sayetteurs) and granted a monopoly over this production; the other (bourgetteurs) made mixed material, a production that was not entirely prohibited to LILLE AND ITS ARRONDISSEMENT IN THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY 31 non-guild weavers.
The success or failure of a flax or wool merchant, for instance, depended on his (or her) ability to correctly anticipate what quantity and quality of yarn could be obtained from a bundle of combed flax fibres or from a bag of unwashed fleece. Experience was therefore the best capital, and the required skills overlapped the ones of competent housewives (assessing the quality of natural products, building networks of trustworthy suppliers, and negotiating prices, for instance). 3 Social Stability The mechanization of production in the first half of the century did not change the hierarchical nature of society nor homogenize the middling LILLE AND ITS ARRONDISSEMENT IN THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY 39 sort into a unified bourgeoisie.
Lille presented a different image to visitors, and followed a different path. It grew spatially by annexing four suburban rural municipalities: Esquermes, Wazemmes, Moulins and Fives-lez-Lille in 1858. The south-western walls of the city were torn down to be rebuilt around the first three annexed municipalities (Fives remained extra muros). Moulins had been an industrial village, which owed its name to the large numbers of oil-mills planted on the sides of its hills. Esquermes and Wazemmes were thinly populated, as most of their territory was part of the military easement zone.
Female Enterprise Behind the Discursive Veil in Nineteenth-Century Northern France by Béatrice Craig