By Stanley G. Payne
“An notable assessment of reputed fascist activities, instantaneously environment them except different authoritarian nationalist corporations and bringing them jointly inside a professional universal category. operating in the course of the quantity, and precious to readers at each point, is a cautious critique of the most important debates that divide students in this so much unintelligible ‘ism’ of them all.
Payne accurately defines concerns, cites the easiest literature within the significant ecu languages, and gives with moderation and intelligence his personal conclusions at the question.”— Gilbert Allardyce, American historic Review
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Extra info for Fascism: Comparison and Definition
4 A partial analogy of a more crude but even more radical sort-though less directed toward modernization-may be found in the transformation of elements of the old German Conservative Party and the new German Landowners' League (Bund der Landwirte) in the 1890s. Forsaking earlier principles of ultraconservative legalism, the new German radical right turned toward overtly authoritarian polities on the basis of demagogic new mass mobilization, racialism, and racial anti-Semitism. Striving to foster particular interests within a new authoritarian racial nationalist framework, the new German radical right also eagerly promoted militarism and imperial expansion.
1964), 233-390. 14. Antonio Salandra, Memorie politiche (1916-1925) (Milan, 1951), 73-75. TIlE FASCIST AND NATIONAL SOCIALIST MOVEMENTS I 51 Ambris's "Carta del Camaro," a reasonably imaginative attempt at a representative and democratic kind of societal corporatism, momentarily exerted considerable influence on the Fascist national syndicalists, and some of them temporarily veered in the direction of 0' Annunzio and De Ambris late in 1921 as Mussolini carried the party toward compromise with the right.
36 I SOME HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS combine extreme nationalism with limited economic socialism, racism, and direct action. Its small strong-arm gangs were more violent and determined than those of the rightist Action Fran~aise, for from the beginning they were willing to employ maximal force, including murder. Another novelty, compared with the subsequently more restrained and elitist action of the Action Fran~aise, was Mores's effort, limited though it was, to employ racist antisemitism as a means of popular mobilization among common people.
Fascism: Comparison and Definition by Stanley G. Payne