By Gerhard Ertl, Helmut Knözinger, Jens Weitkamp
This primary in-depth e-book on environmental catalysis covers the subjects? Environmental catalysis - cellular resources? Environmental catalysis - desk bound resources? Catalytic combustion? Catalytic routes to hydro(chloro)fluorocarbons? Heterogeneous catalysis within the troposphereand is imperative for each scientist and engineer operating within the car and effort industries, atmospheric learn, and similar parts. Its transparent presentation, many illustrations and diagrams and assurance of significant points corresponding to a quick comparability of the emission laws within the most vital international locations makes the booklet appropriate for catalytic chemists in addition to specialists lively in politics and environmental defense.
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Extra info for Environmental Catalysis
Evolution of the exhaust gas temperature in front of the catalytic converter, the exhaust gas lambda value and the hydrocarbon concentration in the exhaust gas, for two different engine designs, as a function of the time during the first four minutes of the US-FTP 75 test cycle. Reprinted with permission from ref. , 0 1993 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. adds air to the exhaust gas in front of the catalyst for some time after the cranking of the engine. Doing so, the composition of the exhaust gas in front of the catalyst is adjusted to lean, which favors the rate of the oxidation reactions, as will be shown below .
The operation of the engine outside of the stoichiometric point affects the amount of CO, HC, NO, and 0 2 emitted simultaneously, as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon fraction. The oxygen content of the exhaust gas is of particular interest as this is measured by the lambda sensor and is used to control the engine. Figure 52 shows as an example the influence of the exhaust gas oxygen content on the conversion of CO, HC and NO,y,at fixed CO, HC and NO, content. This experiment was performed in a model gas reactor in which a stoichiometric composition is 0 2 .
The precious metal composition is typically uniform in the radial and axial directions of the monolith structure, although different designs have been described in the patent literature and have even been used in some selected applications. However, much more common is a nonuniform distribution of the precious metals within the washcoat layer. One - macroscopic - example of nonuniform distribution is that the amount of one precious metal component decreases from the part of the washcoat that is in contact with the gas phase towards the part of the washcoat that is in contact with the monolith wall and eventually vice-versa for the second precious metal component.
Environmental Catalysis by Gerhard Ertl, Helmut Knözinger, Jens Weitkamp