By J.A. Holtet
This quantity is predicated on lectures and discussions offered at a NATO complicated research Institute on ELF and VLF Radio Wave Propagation, which used to be held in Norway April 1974. The examine of propagation of electromagnetic waves with frequen cies lower than a hundred kHz has lengthy traditions in ionospheric physics. To-day, this frequency diversity remains to be of serious significance, either to the physicist, who makes use of the waves as diagnostic instruments to check the earth's setting and to the engineer who exploits the characteris tics of those waves to enhance communications, navigation and timing structures. lately the lively curiosity within the box has resulted in very speedy growth within the improvement of propagation concept in addition to within the program of this conception to the answer of useful difficulties. The goal of the Organizing Committee for this convention was once to assemble theoreticians and experi mentalists engaged on some of the points of wave propagation, on the way to stimulate a fruitful dialogue and trade of ideas.
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Extra info for ELF-VLF Radio Wave Propagation: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Spåtind, Norway, April 17–27, 1974
H. (1973) J. tmos. Terr. , 35. 1453. Whitten, R. C. and Poppoff, I. G. (1961) J. GeOphvs. , ~,-T779 (67,3000, corrigendum). Williams, D. J. and Het':-ing, F. T. (1973) J. Geophys. Res . 2!. 37. Williams, D. J. and Kohl, J. W. (1965) J. Geophys. , 4139. Zmuda. A. J. (1966) J. Geophys. , Z!. 1911. Zmuda, A.. J. and Potemra, T,_ A. (1972) Revs. Geophys. , 981. Zmuda, A. J. and Potemra, T. A. (1973) J. Geophys. , 5818. j IONIZING RADIATION AFFECTING THE LOWER IONOSPHERE 37 DISCUSSION Belrose: I will like to comment generally on the subject of the paper.
Lanzerotti (1972) and Burrows (1972) have reviewed the magnetospheric characteristics of the solar protons. A. POTEMRA satellite data from 30 PCA's during the period 1965 to 1969 and reviewed quantitative descriptions of the ionospheric D region during disturbed PCA conditions. 1 Ionization Rates Figure 3 is taken from the review of Zmuda and Potemra (1972) with the ionization rate profile for the event of August 2, 1972 added. The ionization rates in this figure due to solar protons were computed from the proton fluxes and energy spectra measured by several satellites and the specific ionization rates from Adams and Masley (1965) and Adams (personal communication 1966).
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ELF-VLF Radio Wave Propagation: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Spåtind, Norway, April 17–27, 1974 by J.A. Holtet