By Bogdan Mieczkowski (auth.), Bogdan Mieczkowski (eds.)
In the fast-growing East ecu economies, a parti cularly very important position falls to the shipping platforms which are referred to as upon to maneuver an ever-rising quantity of products and a con stantly expanding variety of passengers. Gaining new insights into the issues that face these shipping platforms, into their achievements, and into a few nonetheless unanswered questions is hence hugely attention-grabbing and--in phrases of worldwide event --essential. The transportation structures of japanese Europe function inside a centrally deliberate atmosphere, yet they serve dif ferent varieties of economies, from hugely complicated East Germany and Czechoslovakia to the nonetheless industrializing Romania and Bulgaria. they must fulfill particularly diverse shipping wishes: they function inside of platforms that experience followed various scales of political and monetary priorities and diverse equipment and types of attaining them politically--from the trustworthy Soviet shadow-state of East Germany to the indepen dence-seeking Romania and Yugoslavia and, economically, from the typically strict authoritarian type of Romania that seeks industrialization and country strength to the recent financial Mechanism of Hungary and the decentralization of Yugoslavia. additionally, in contrast to the Soviet Union, the East ecu shipping sys tems conceal fairly small territories whose exterior connec tions vary from each other in scope and in modes. In addi tion, the shipping platforms of jap Europe were referred to as upon to complete feats of steeply emerging functionality with x infrastructures and kit supported by means of miserly allocations.
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Extra info for East European Transport Regions and Modes
Truck production did not surpass ,50,000 until 1972 (RS 1977:XXXIV). Hence, road construction was also limited to the modernization of major 35 intercity connections. During his several visits in the 1950s and 1960s, this author did not experience any traffic jams either in the Polish cities or in other parts of the country, until his later visit in the 1970s. It was the deliberate, and largely political, decision of the Gierek administration in the 1970s which reversed the auto production policies.
All except the USSR. The Zawiercie to Hrubieszow line (called in the Polish Press H-H line for the latter city and "Huta" or steel mill) is already partly functioning from the Soviet bordet to Nisko, while other "missing" links interconnecting the existing segments are under construction (PoZityka J July I, 1978). The "gauge issue" is so sensitive that the whole matter has been censored in the Polish mass media for fear of the wholesale negative reaction from the Polish public opinion. Suffice it to say, that the east-west lines which were converted by the Soviet Army after the war to broad gauge, as logistical linkages for the troops fighting and later stationed in East Germany, were soon after the war reconverted to the standard gauge by the Polish Railway authorities.
3. Road Transport The Polish roads were also sparse before World War II in the eastern part of the country, as described above, but above all, even if they were hard-surfaced, they were of inferior quality and widely differentiated by building and maintenance standards. The interwar Poland made a substantial effort to upgrade or supplement the existing roads, and by the end of its independent existence in 1939, all the district towns in Poland were connected by all-weather roads. The total number of motor vehicles in 1938 was, however, minuscule--54 ,000.
East European Transport Regions and Modes by Bogdan Mieczkowski (auth.), Bogdan Mieczkowski (eds.)