By Jason Wittenberg
This publication investigates one of many oldest paradoxes in political technological know-how: why do mass political loyalties persist even amid lengthy social upheaval and disruptive financial improvement. Drawing on vast archival examine and an unique database of election effects, this publication explores the ambiguity of political patience by means of studying Hungary's frequently tortuous course from pre- to post-communism. Wittenberg reframes the theoretical debate, after which demonstrates how regardless of the various depredations of communism, the Roman Catholic and Calvinist church buildings transmitted loyalties to events of the correct. opposite to traditional knowledge, Church resistance happened no longer from above, yet from under. Hemmed in and stressed by way of communist social gathering cadres, parish monks and pastors hired a number of creative strategies to make sure the ongoing survival of neighborhood church associations. those associations insulated their adherents from pressures to assimilate into the encompassing socialist milieu. finally this resulted in political continuity among pre- and post-communism.
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Additional resources for Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary
Linz (2000) and Linz and Stepan (1996: ch. 3). ” As evil and deadly as that regime was, it lasted only twelve years, versus roughly forty years for Eastern European communism. 29 P1: JZP witty˙main CUNY417/Wittenberg 0 521 84912 8 December 26, 2005 16:31 Explaining Political Persistence mechanics of correlating election results, but the prior decision of which parties or blocs should be compared with one another. Second, there is a dearth of reliable data from the communist period that can serve as a valid empirical link between the pre- and the postcommunist polities.
2 Theoretical Approaches deciding among parties (or candidates) based on what parties do. Expressive approaches, by contrast, emphasize instead the importance of what parties are. This distinction is not meant to be essential, as one could argue that what parties are in the minds of the voters is ultimately a function of what they do (and vice versa). Moreover, in practice many explanations do not carefully distinguish between the two and in any given election both types of decision are surely taking place.
Second, a requisite for successful party adaptation is that parties should offer discernably distinct, competing policy packages. If voters are unable to distinguish among the parties on issues of policy, then it is unlikely their vote choices will be based on policy. 14 The reason the aforementioned accounts of persistence, be they instrumental or expressive, fare poorly when applied to redemocratizations lies in an impoverished conceptualization of authoritarianism and its impact on postauthoritarian electoral loyalties.
Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary by Jason Wittenberg