By H. Haken (auth.), Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hermann Haken (eds.)
A good deal of the good fortune of technological know-how has rested on its particular equipment. one in every of which has been first of all the research of straightforward phenomena equivalent to that of falling our bodies, or to decompose structures into elements with well-defined homes easier than these of the whole method. In our time there's a turning out to be understanding that during many circumstances of serious functional or clinical curiosity, akin to economics or the hu guy mind, we need to take care of actually complicated structures which can't be decomposed into their elements with out wasting an important homes of the entire approach. In addi tion, complicated platforms have many points and will be checked out from many issues of view. each time a sophisticated challenge arises, a few scientists or folks are able to invent plenty of appealing phrases, or to cite Goethe "denn immer wo Begriffe feh len, dort stellt ein Wort zur rechten Zeit sich ein" ("whenever options are lack king, a be aware seems on the correct time"). mostly this kind of method offers not just the layman but additionally scientists operating in fields varied from that of the in ventor of those new phrases the effect that this challenge has been solved, and i'm sometimes surprised to determine how influential this type of "linguistics" has become.
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Additional resources for Complex Systems — Operational Approaches in Neurobiology, Physics, and Computers: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Synergetics at Schloß Elmau, Bavaria, May 6–11, 1985
In the absence of relative movement, the object disappears in the texture. Relative movement, however, allows a determination of the objects location and, in the fly's case, induces an attempt to fixate it. When a stripe and a random-dot texture are frequencies, the stripe is seen and the fly oscillated with slightly different tries to turn toward it. Fig. 9 shows the results of a paradigmatic experiment, where figure and ground are Figure §. Schematic representation of an experimental set UP used in the figure-ground test.
In the 90° 51 'ene" 0,3 0 0. ~ a: 0,5' (13 '~ UJ l' U Ir- 0 0. 'c" 3' 0 ~ rr-- III :0 ~ 24 36 48 Figure width [degree] Width of oscillating texture [arbitrary units] Figure 11 Gain control mechanism that operates on the angular extent of moving pat terns. Redrawn from REICHARDT, POGGIO and HAUSEN . a) Oscillation amplitude of the torque response as function of the angular extent of an oscillating figure (0° to 48° wide). 5° to ±100). In the experiments, the ground is not oscillated. For a given amplitude of the oscillating figure, the amplitude of the response increases with increasing figure width, but reaches a fairly constant level as soon as the figure's extent amounts to more than 12°.
Equation (11) ds (t) that the detector response is proportional t 0 ~ the tells us instantaneous pattern speed, but also depends on F in a way specified by the where expression that is given in the bracket. r the -a (x-ct) pattern contrast function was assumed to be F = A ± B e : a Gaussian contrast superimposed on a constant brightness which is moved with constant velocity ~~ = -c across a detector array. The two contrast patterns are shown in Fig. 14a,b. Evaluating (11) with the specific contrast functions leads to an expression platted in Fig.
Complex Systems — Operational Approaches in Neurobiology, Physics, and Computers: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Synergetics at Schloß Elmau, Bavaria, May 6–11, 1985 by H. Haken (auth.), Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hermann Haken (eds.)