By Claire L. Parkinson
Decisively slicing in the course of the hyperbole on either side of the talk, unique NASA climatologist Claire L. Parkinson brings much-needed stability and point of view to the hugely contentious factor of weather swap. delivering a deeply an expert review of world stipulations prior and current, the writer lays out a compelling argument that our understandings and types are insufficient for convinced predictions of the meant and unintentional results of assorted initiatives now into consideration to switch destiny weather. in a single compact quantity, Parkinson provides a coherent synopsis of the 4.6-billion-year background of weather switch on planet Earth—both prior to and after people grew to become an important factor—and explores present matters relating to endured international warming and its attainable outcomes. She levels over the large geoengineering schemes being proposed and why we have to be careful approximately them, the restrictions of present international weather versions and projections, the most important arguments made via these skeptical of the mainstream perspectives, and the practical methods we will be able to decrease damaging human affects on our planet. whereas discussing all of those polarizing subject matters, the writer constantly exhibits recognize for the perspectives of alarmists, skeptics, and nearly all of humans whose positions lie someplace among these extremes. The ebook clarifies the most contentious issues within the weather debate, and within the strategy treats us to a desirable dialogue interweaving Earth historical past, technology, the historical past of technology, and human nature. Readers could be rewarded with a real figuring out of a fancy factor which may be one of the most vital dealing with humankind within the coming decades.
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Additional info for Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix
The intergovernmental panel on climate change Because of the importance of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in discussions of climate change and climate prediction, IPCC documents 22 b coming climate crisis? are referred to often in this book. Hence I include here a brief description of this very large and influential group. 10 The IPCC examines and consolidates projections from a large number of published scientific studies and quickly became an important force in climate change discussions.
Sea Ice Of much lesser volume than the Earth’s land ice but still of tremendous significance is the Earth’s sea ice coverage. Sea ice forms in the sea (or ocean) and floats on the liquid water, thereby being in equilibrium with it and not affecting sea level as it expands or retreats. Compared with ice on land, it is quite thin, typically being less than 5 meters thick. However, it spreads over a vast area in both polar regions. In the Arctic, the areal extent of sea ice ranges from about 5 million square kilometers in late summer to about 15 million square kilometers in late winter, and in the Antarctic its extent ranges from about 3 million square kilometers in the late austral summer to about 18 million square kilometers in the late austral winter.
An important aspect of ocean water is that, in addition to pure water (H2O), it contains dissolved materials collectively contributing to its “salinity” and typically constituting about 35 parts per thousand of its mass. Over 85% of this natural dissolved material consists of chloride and sodium ions, with the remainder largely being sulfate, magnesium, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, and bromide ions. The salt content is more dense than the H2O itself, and therefore higher salinity tends toward higher density.
Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix by Claire L. Parkinson