By John F. Copper
This three-volume paintings is the 1st accomplished research of China's international relief and funding international relations to track its evolution because the founding of PRC in 1949. quantity I examines the definitions, origins, nature, and scope of China's international reduction and funding and indicates that China has a extra salient heritage of giving than the other country.
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Additional resources for China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins
Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 37 From the above discussion it is apparent that we do not know with any degree of accuracy how much foreign aid and foreign investments China has provided to other countries. The published figures are at best incomplete. Inconsistent definitions of the parameters of both aid and investments and different meanings of these and others terms used have created the huge discrepancies cited. More will be said about this in the concluding chapter of Volume 3.
230 No analyst has put a value on this. Likewise nothing is said about profits made by some Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 35 of China’s recipient nations selling weapons and even nuclear technology to other countries. 231 This would indicate that China’s “arms aid” (using the Western definition of aid) has nearly ceased, which, as other information indicates, is hardly the case. In 2010, China marked the sixtieth anniversary of its foreign aid giving with an exhibition that was visited by top Chinese and foreign officials.
China’s aid and investment policies changed together or in tandem. 169 Indeed they are. Further, as its aid and investments became much larger, Western countries began to criticize China’s aid more, pointing out that China disregards good governance, does not promote democracy, and makes human rights conditions worse with its aid (because its financial assistance helps prop up Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 27 authoritarian regimes). Critics complained that China gives aid only to gain resources and to capture markets.
China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins by John F. Copper