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Extra resources for Chemistry
The number of neutrons is the difference between the mass number (superscript 235) and the atomic number (92). SOLUTION An atom of 235 92U has 92 protons, 92 electrons, and 235 - 92 = 143 neutrons. 4 Element X is toxic to humans in high concentration but is essential to life at low concentrations. Identify element X, whose atoms contain 24 protons, and write the symbol for the isotope with 28 neutrons. STRATEGY The number of protons in an atom’s nucleus is the element’s atomic number. The mass number is the sum of the atomic number and the number of neutrons.
5 The Rutherford scattering experiment. (a) When a beam of alpha particles is directed at a thin gold foil, most particles pass through the foil undeflected, but a small number are deflected at large angles and a few bounce back toward the particle source. (b) A closeup view shows how most of an atom is empty space and only the alpha particles that strike a nucleus are deflected. Mary V. Lorentz, “Bowling Balls and Beads, A Concrete Analogy to the Rutherford Experiment,” J. Chem. , Vol. 65, 1988, 1082.
If the nucleus contains the atom’s positive charges and most of its mass, and if the electrons move in space a relatively large distance away, then it is clear why the observed scattering results are obtained: Most alpha particles encounter empty space as they fly through the foil. 5b). Modern measurements show that an atom has a diameter of roughly 10-10 m and that a nucleus has a diameter of about 10-15 m. It’s difficult to imagine from these numbers alone, though, just how small a nucleus really is.
Chemistry by McMurry,Fay