By Lower S. K.
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Extra info for Chemical Energetics. All about enthalpy, calorimetry and the First Law of Thermodynamics(en)(32s)
Even large lakes can exert a moderating influence on the local weather due to water's relative insensitivity to temperature change. During the daytime the land and sea receive approximately equal amounts of heat from the Sun, but the much smaller heat capacity of the land causes its temperature to rise more rapidly. This causes the air above the land to heat, reducing its density and causing it to rise. Cooler oceanic air is drawn in to vill the void, thus giving rise to the daytime sea breeze.
In the evening, both land and ocean lose heat by radiation to the sky, but the temperature of the water drops less than that of the land, continuing to supply heat to the oceanic air and causing it to rise, thus reversing the direction of air flow and producing the evening land breeze. (The image is from the Web site of the National Data Buoy Center) Why it gets colder as you go higher: the adiabatic lapse rate The air receives its heat by absorbing far-infrared radiation from the earth, which of course receives its heat from the sun.
According to the First Law ∆U = q + w, if this work is not accompanied by a compensating flow of heat into the system, its internal energy will fall, and so, therefore, will its temperature. ) Thus as air rises above the surface of the earth it undergoes adiabatic expansion and cools. The actual rate of temperature decrease with altitude depends on the composition of the air (the main variable being its moisture content) and on its heat capacity. 8 C° per km of altitude. Some applications of First-law-related topics Page 30 of 32 Santa Anas and chinooks: those warm, wild winds Just the opposite happens when winds develop in high-altitude areas and head downhill.
Chemical Energetics. All about enthalpy, calorimetry and the First Law of Thermodynamics(en)(32s) by Lower S. K.