By Yiqing Lin, Waleed H. Abdulla
This ebook illustrates the widely used and novel methods of audio watermarking for copyrights defense. the writer examines the theoretical and functional step-by-step consultant to the subject of knowledge hiding in audio sign reminiscent of tune, speech, broadcast. The booklet covers new options constructed by way of the authors are absolutely defined and MATLAB courses, for audio watermarking and audio caliber checks and likewise discusses equipment for objectively predicting the perceptual caliber of the watermarked audio signals.
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Extra resources for Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB
If graphed in Bark scale, all the masking thresholds look similar in shape as shown in Fig. 9 In this case, it is easier to model the masking threshold by the use of the so-called spreading function in Sect. 1. As a result, Bark scale is widely used in the area of auditory masking. Moreover, the masking thresholds from a 1 kHz narrowband noise masker at different SPLs, LCB , are outlined in Fig. 14. Although SPL of the masker is different, the minimum SMR remains constant at around 3 dB, corresponding to the value in Fig.
Moreover, the masking thresholds from a 1 kHz narrowband noise masker at different SPLs, LCB , are outlined in Fig. 14. Although SPL of the masker is different, the minimum SMR remains constant at around 3 dB, corresponding to the value in Fig. 12. It means that the minimum SMR in NMT solely depends on the center frequency of masker. Also notice that the masking threshold becomes more asymmetric around the center frequency as the SPL increases. At frequencies lower than 1 kHz, all the curves have a steep rise.
Therefore, by comparing Fig. 19 to Figs. 8, the threshold in quiet in Fig. 19 is shifted downward by 12 dB. , noise-like) maskers. k/. 12) 38 2 Principles of Psychoacoustics a Initial PSD Normalized PSD Threshold in Quiet Sound pressure level (dB) 100 50 0 −50 −100 −150 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 Frequency (Hz) b Initial PSD Sound pressure level (dB) 100 Normalized PSD Threshold in Quiet 50 0 −50 −100 −150 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Critical band rate (Bark) Fig. 4 Psychoacoustic Model 39 If the value of a local maxima is at least 7 dB greater than that of its neighboring components within a certain Bark range Dk , such a maxima will be marked as a tonal masker.
Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB by Yiqing Lin, Waleed H. Abdulla