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Their width is about 1 cm [28}. 9. V. energy 2 MeV) Rotahon,~ gantry RotatIonal gantry MIXed beam UNITED STATES Texas M. D. 4. 1 RATIONALE FOR HEAVY-ION THERAPY Heavy ions combine the advantage of a high physical selectivity with high-LET characteristics (Fig. 8). Their physical selectivity is similar to that of proton or helium ion beams. They even have a smaller penumbra, but it is questionable whether this factor could be of clinical relevance. More important is the fact that, with heavy ions, the higher RBE at the level of the spreadout Bragg peak compared to the initial plateau enhances the advantage of the dose distribution.

These poor technical conditions resulted in C(lmplications (mainly late complications) which in tum impaired the development of neutron therapy for several years. The siruation has today considerably improved, and progress has been made in 2 quite independent directions due to technicalogical developments. 38 Firstly, hospital-based accelerators were installed, fully available for therapy and with technical characteristics suitable for routine clinical applications: for example, for neutron therapy, in Seattle (USA), Ciatterbridge (UK), Seoul (Ko:"ea) and, for proton beam therapy, a pioneer centre is LomaLinda in the USA.

The dose rate (> 5 Gy Imin) is sufficient to permit completion of the treatments in much less than one minute. Ion types from He to Ar can be accelerated at a maximum energy of 800 MeV I amu and at a minimum energy of 100 MeV lamu. A these energies, any tumour even deep seated (30 cm) can be reached [45][46]. In Europe, the Commission of the European Communities initiated a feasibility study for the project EUUMA (European Light Ion Medical Accelerators), but, at the end, was not able to support such a complex and expensive project [15].

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ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR DATA FOR RADIOTHERAPY AND RADIATION RESEARCH by IAEA VIENNA, 1995


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