By Dr. Paolo Cappabianca, Dr. Alessandra Alfieri, Prof. Dr. Enrico de Divitiis, Prof. Dr. Manfred Tschabitscher (auth.)
It is just lately that using the endoscope because the sole visualizing instrument has been brought in transsphenoidal pituitary surgical procedure with its favorable similar implications and minimum operative trauma. after all, microscopic and endoscopic anatomy are primarily an analogous, however the optical distorsion of endoscopic pictures is sort of vast in comparison to microscopic depictions. An endoscope lens produces photos with maximal magnification at its heart and serious contraction at its outer edge. closer photographs are disproportionally enlarged and distant photographs are falsely miniaturized. This optical phantasm could disorientate a physician who's no longer acquainted with this ordinary on the cranium base. This atlas acts as a advisor during the endoscopic anatomy and offers specified descriptions of the preoperative administration and the surgical procedures.
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Extra info for Atlas of Endoscopic Anatomy for Endonasal Intracranial Surgery
A. 2. 22 Sagittal section , right side . o 22 I. A. 2. 23 Sagittal section, left side. 23 I. B. Endoscopic surgical anatomy 25 I. B. Endoscopic surgical anatomy Nose After introduction of the endoscope into the nostril the structures met are the septum medially and the inferior nasal concha laterally. The first important structure to identify is the middle nasal concha, which represents a landmark in the determination of the direction of the endoscope. The space between the septum and the middle nasal concha is usually very narrow.
The endoscope is inserted into the third ventricle. 48 I. B. 6. 63 0 0 endoscope. The endoscope is inserted into the third ventricle behind the pituitary stalk and from the left side. The posterior part of the ventricular cavity is explored. 64 00 endoscope. The endoscope is approached closer to the pineal recess. 49 I. B. S. 65 30° endoscope . The endoscope is turned to the right side . 66 30° endoscope . The endoscope is orientated upwards and approached closer to the pineal recess. Closer view.
4. 36 0° endoscope . Microscissors are used to cut the arachnoid. 37 0° endoscope . The right superior hypophyseal artery is identified. 35 I. B. 4. 38 0° endoscope. The optic chiasm and the pituitary stalk appear after the arachnoid dissection. 39 36 0° endoscope. Closer view of the opto-chiasmatic region. I. B. 4. 40 0° endoscope. The chiasmatic cistern has been opened. Closer view of the pituitary gland and the opto-chiasmatic region. A2 = anterior cerebral artery. 37 I. B. 4. 41 0° endoscope.
Atlas of Endoscopic Anatomy for Endonasal Intracranial Surgery by Dr. Paolo Cappabianca, Dr. Alessandra Alfieri, Prof. Dr. Enrico de Divitiis, Prof. Dr. Manfred Tschabitscher (auth.)