Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions by PDF

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Additional info for Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar Syst. Bodies - NRC

Example text

77 This upper limit rate, which would lead to a lower limit estimate of 30 million years to resurface Europa, is broadly consistent with the lower limit surface age based on crater density of 20 million years. If Europa has a relatively constant rate and style of resurfacing, and if any type of resurfacing would lead to the introduction of surface materials into a subsurface habitable environment, then the likelihood that a particular part of the surface undergoes resurfacing within 103 years is less than 5 × 10-5.

4 Specific transition metals often serve as electron acceptors and donors for catalytic activity or play a role in protein structure. While the literature describes many of the biological functions of trace elements, we have far less information about minimum concentrations of the different trace elements required by organisms and their transport into the cell. In oligiotrophic aquatic environments, iron, molybdenum, and phosphorus limit the extent of primary production and thus other microbial autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolic activity.

W. H. Nealson, Astrobiology and the potential for life on Europa, in Europa (R. Pappalardo, W. McKinnon, and K. , 2009. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 24 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies 4 A Geophysical Perspective and Inventory of Habitable Environments on Icy Bodies The geophysical context of solar system objects constrains the potential propagation of terrestrial organisms with known minimal nutritional requirements and environmental tolerances outlined in Chapter 3.

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