By Christian Grovermann
This research combines econometrics and agent-based modelling to guage the affects of a number of pesticide use aid suggestions within the context of Thai highland agriculture. Pesticide productiveness and pesticide overuse are quantified, whereas determinants of the adoption of suggestions in pesticide use aid are anticipated. On that foundation, the Mathematical Programming-based Multi Agent process (MPMAS), a bio-economic simulation version, is used to ex-ante assess the adoption of built-in Pest administration (IPM) together with a sequence of market-based tools that strengthen the transition to extra sustainable pest regulate practices. The MPMAS simulation effects display that, over 5 years, it truly is attainable to carry down degrees of pesticide use considerably with out source of revenue trade-offs for farm brokers. A proportional tax, expanding the cost of man made insecticides by way of 50% on regular, including bio-pesticide subsidies for IPM proves to be the main cost-efficient and attainable coverage package deal. IPM practices are followed by way of as much as seventy five% of farm brokers and pesticide use discount rates succeed in as much as 34%.
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Additional resources for Assessment of Pesticide Use Reduction Strategies for Thai Highland Agriculture: Combining Econometrics and Agent-based Modelling
The main criterion used for choosing the right tax rates was to find a compromise between generating sufficient government revenues and practicability. Therefore, the rates selected in the tax scenarios range between the extremely high tax rates (above 100%) found in the study of Skevas et al. (2012), and the very low tax rates (3–5%) implemented in Scandinavia since the 1990s (Schou, 1999). If tax levels are set too high, their acceptance is at risk. , 2013). If, in contrast, tax levels are set too low, their effect is negligible and insufficient revenues are generated to fund alternative pest management methods, such as IPM.
As a result, so far the use of IPM approaches to control pests has remained very limited. Also, supportive policies such as direct or indirect subsidies for IPM have not been introduced, and in fact the general policy environment in Thailand tends to maintain pesticide use at high levels. In 2004, the introduction of a public standard called Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) aimed to bring down pesticide use levels. , 2012). In this regard, the focus on residue testing rather than changing on-farm practices and the lack of monitoring capacities have been identified as major shortcomings.
Falconer, 2000) Many of the weaknesses mentioned above can be remedied through the use of multi-agent systems. Using these systems, a range of diverse farm types and individual behaviours can be modelled in space and time, which is a useful addition to the previous studies on crop protection policies. , 2006). , 2010). The MPMAS application used in this study was parameterized with farm and plot level data taken from intensive and diverse production systems in the mountainous north of Thailand, and in particular the Mae Sa watershed, where the adoption of cash crops has been accompanied by very high levels of pesticide use.
Assessment of Pesticide Use Reduction Strategies for Thai Highland Agriculture: Combining Econometrics and Agent-based Modelling by Christian Grovermann